Self accommodating shear strain
The high thermal stress caused by pulsed laser irradiation is believed to be the main driving force of the phase transformation.
This martensitic transformation is associated with a positive volume change and substantial shear strain.
High-resolution TEM reveals that the transformation is achieved via the glide of quarter partial dislocations on every other basal plane of a-Al 2 O 3.For example, when voids or hard particles are located in random positions, Becker , Nicolaou and Semiatin [326, 327], Horstemeyer et al.  investigated the effects of damage location on shear localization that precedes crack propagation.Given that shear localization can be simulated in continuum models, it is important to identify the locations of damage nucleation with respect to microstructural features and slip systems (e.g. While this approach can model the effect of speciﬁc damage sites on the surrounding material, damage can also be embedded into the material constitutive model without modeling damage sites explicitly.These combined requirements are currently not fully realized with conventional rotary, internal combustion, or turbine-based propulsion.You will find pleasure at work and happiness at home .